La trova antioqueña y la tipología de la oralidad


Para Paul Zumthor (1991: 37) la oralidad pura –llamada también primaria e inmediata–, es aquella en la cual no existe, en absoluto, contacto alguno con cualquier forma de escritura. Es propia de aquellas civilizaciones para las que la voz constituye el fundamento cosmogónico, moral, normativo, jerárquico y cohesivo de la comunidad (38). Este tipo de oralidad es posible encontrarlo en comunidades arcaicas o primitivas, ya desaparecidas (38) como sin duda sucedió, en el caso de Colombia, con las tribus indígenas prehispánicas y con los esclavos negros traídos del África. En el caso de Antioquia, no obstante la escasez y provisionalidad de los estudios históricos y antropológicos sobre nuestros antepasados prehispánicos3, y ante la inexistencia de evidencias que revelen lo contrario, es posible afirmar, al menos
hasta ahora, que los grupos indígenas que poblaron la región antioqueña hasta la llegada de los españoles fueron sociedades agrícolas y tribales carentes de escritura y, por tanto, poseedoras de una cultura oral en la cual se basaba su cosmogonía, su jerarquización, y su cohesión social (Parsons, 1950: 31-38; Cadavid, 1960:19-48;
Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1982: 41-115; Castillo, 1988: 23-40 y Abadía, 1994).
A juzgar por los registros históricos, no puede menos que concluirse que dados sus antecedentes históricos, su composición social y las condiciones económicas, sociales y políticas que le rodearon, la cultura antioqueña fue desde sus inicios en 2 Esta noción de oralidad, aplicada a todo evento poético en cuyo proceso de transmisión y recepción intervengan como mínimo la voz y el oído será la que oriente este trabajo; el concepto es de Paul Zumhtor quien
toma en préstamo y traduce el vocablo francés oralité.
3 En el tomo primero de su libro Ensayos de historia social (Bogotá, Tercer Mundo Editores-Uniandes, 1994)
Jaime Jaramilo Uribe presenta una completa reseña de los estudios realizados hasta el momento sobre la
población indígena prehispánica en territtorio colombiano.
4 Para el caso específico de Antioquia esta investigación se apoya en los trabajos de Neyla Castillo Espitia y de
Roberto Luis Jaramillo publicados en la Historia de Antioquia, dirigida por Jorge Orlando Melo y auspiciada
y publicada por Suramericana de Seguros (Medellín, 1988).

siglo XVII y hasta muy entrado el siglo XX una cultura ágrafa y rural cuyos hábitos y costumbres debieron estar regidos por completo por la oralidad; como bien lo sugiere e ilustra Eduardo Santa en su obra La Colonización antioqueña: una historia de caminos (1994: 234-301), la copla, la trova, la adivinanza, el chiste, y hasta el chisme, fueron compañeros inseparables de los agricultores, jornaleros, chapoleras, ordeñadores, cañeros, aserradores, vaqueros y arrieros que iniciaron el poblamiento de la vasto territorio de influencia antioqueña5. Es la misma tradición que quizá mantiene viva la trova antioqueña en los diferentes pueblos del departamento, desde los cuales llegan con frecuencia a Medellín –a la sede de la Asociación de Trovadores de Colombiana, Astrocol– campesinos analfabetas poseedores de una inmensa
habilidad para la improvisación, en busca de un espacio que les permita mantener viva esas su tradición y habilidad repentísticas.
En la oralidad mediatizada la voz es conservada y transmitida por aparatos mecánicos y sonoros como el radio, la televisión, el casete, el disco, e inclusive el audiovisual, los cuales, aparente paradoja, devuelven a la palabra el poder que parecía haber perdido en su contacto con la escritura (Zumthor, 1991: 28); una vez mediatizado, el texto oral –canción, poema o relato–, es devuelto al oído del campesino y obrero semianalfabetas a quienes la escritura había despojado de su oralidad primaria (30); con ellos el texto oral recupera un público receptor que la escritura le había arrebatado y en muchas ocasiones dejado a la deriva, sin voz y sin escrito, según su grado de alfabetización; una vez mediatizada la voz se libera de las limitaciones espaciales originales, se masifica (29) adquiere una cobertura insospechada, puede llegar a un número incalculable de escuchas y al más recóndito de los lugares; puede además ser amplificada, modulada y repetida indefinida e invariablemente, instaurando con ello otra forma de tradicionalismo.
Ejemplos de oralidad mediatizada son el poema grabado en discos de acetato, la crónica radial, las historias grabadas en casete, los cuentos y relatos emitidos por la radio, la radionovela, las transmisiones deportivas por radio y televisión, la transmisión de festivales de poesía oral improvisada, los programas de humor en los que se combinan la noticia, la crítica periodística y el humor oral en sus más variadas formas: el chiste, la parodia, la copla, la poesía oral improvisada y la canción, que recorre todas las formas posibles de fijación sonora disco, casete, audiovisual,
multimedia.

La canción constituye la mayor evidencia, la prueba más irrefutable de oralidad; la canción grabada conserva la voz en el tiempo, cada que se le escucha, una voz “ficticia” transmite oralmente un texto oral percibido por el oído de un receptor; y en cada emisión, repetible indefinidamente, la canción evoca, llama voces 5 Este proceso de colonización comprendió inicialmente el suroeste y el nordeste antioqueños; y luego se expandió por el sur del departamento de Antioquia hacia lo que hoy comprende los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda y Quindío, el norte del Tolima y el sector nororiental del Valle de Cauca.




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