LAS MODALIDADES DE LA TROVA


Como la gran mayoría de las culturas orales, no es cierto ni es seguro decir una fecha exacta de cuando data el origen de la improvisación. Pero la improvisación de versos no inició en Colombia como muchos piensan, y mucho menos en Antioquia, como diríamos los paisas más regionalistas, los cuales pensamos que después de Antioquia esta el cielo. No. En este caso hay que reconocer que la improvisación, de donde proviene la trova viene de mucho antes de que aparecieran los Ñito o los Salvo Ruiz.

Para ser exactos debo decir que la improvisación esta en todo el mundo, pero para saber bien el origen de la trova antioqueña, y sus diferentes clases, podríamos ver que los primeros decimeros, o improvisadores de décimas aparecen en España. Por allá por el siglo 11, cuando datan los primeros juglares. De allí nacieron toda clase de improvisaciones, hasta llegar a Cuba y a través del tiempo a toda América.

Pero Vemos además que en cada región de nuestra gran nación existe una diferente clase de trova. En la costa norte, nos encontramos con esos contagiosos ritmos tropicales, acompañados de acordeón, caja y guacharaca, donde se encuentran dos costeños parranderos e improvisadores, que evocando a Juancho Polo y a Durán, se toman la tarima de Francisco El Hombre en Valledupar para improvisar cuartetos, conocidos como piquerias, en diferentes rimas y versos.

También a esta piqueria se le llama redondilla. Una estrofa de cuatro versos en arte menor, en los cuales se riman el primer verso con el cuarto y el segundo con el tercero.

“En la Costa Norte vive

el guapachoso acordeón,

llevando como pregón

las tonadas del caribe”

La cuadrada es igualmente difícil y se puede decir que cuando se hace, sale más por accidente que por méritos, en esta se riman el primer y el tercer verso y el segundo y el cuarto, no es tan armoniosa pero es bastante poética a la vez. Es también, otro ejemplo de la piqueria.

“Yo me gano a mí mismo

hace rato me gané

pero con mi repentismo

es hora de ganarle a usté”

Moviéndonos más hacia el noroccidente Colombiano, nos encontramos en nuestro caribe, la Décima. Los cuáles desde el Atlántico, Magdalena, Sucre, Bolívar hasta Córdoba, improvisan diez versos octosílabos y consonantes, que tiene como introducción los primeros cuatro versos, de donde termina la décima con lo planteado en su enunciado.

“Cantadoras y gaiteros

encienden la piqueria

y en Sampués y Montería

hay rumor de décimeros.

Que sus versos palenqueros

Galopan por la Sabana

Y extienden la lengua llana

A las tierras urabeñas

Y a las islas caribeñas,

Boga el alma colombiana”

Dirigiéndonos ahora a revisar la gente de más mal genio y fuerte, vemos las Cantas Santandereanas, acompañadas de guitarra, un par de tiples y una quijada de burro, para improvisar una copla con gran picardía haciendo alusión a sus hormigas culonas o a sus hermosos pueblos coloniales.

“Hay unas lindas morenas,

sabrosas y caderonas,

no se ponga malpensado,

son las hormigas culonas”(bis)

En el centro de Colombia nos encontramos con las cantas cundiboyacenses que en ritmo de torbellino y oriundas de Vélez Santander, se escuchan las cantas improvisadas en todas las regiones de los departamentos de Santander, Cundinamarca y Boyacá, que acompañadas de tiple y trinos de flauta improvisados con el alma. Estrofas de cuatro versos, que nos narran las andanzas de Bolívar y nuestras guerras patrias.

“Hay qué lindo es Boyacá

tierra de historia gloriosa,

donde el cielo es más azul

y la chicha más sabrosa”

También nos encontramos en el Tolima Grande, con las Rajaleñas que recogen toda la tradición de estas tierras, acompañadas de tiple, esterilla, marrana y la tambora, cantando versos para mostrarnos toda su picardía tolimense.

“Tolima es un pentagrama,

el Huila es una canción,

Ibagué su melodía

Y Neiva su inspiración”

Hacia el Oriente nos encontramos con el contrapunteo llanero, que con arpa, cuatro y capachos le cantan a la llanura, que robando la cadencia de la palma para tejer joropos improvisados nos muestran como el llanero es capaz de vencer al diablo en un mano a mano coplero.

“Yo soy un contrapuntero,

legítimo y respetao,

al compás de un golpe criollo

lanzo un verso improvisao,

canto periquera, kirpa,

carnaval, nuevo callao,

pajarillo, guacharaca,

gaván y seis chipoliao”

En el Valle del Cauca, encontramos en la tierra de la salsa las trovas del cinco y seis, trovas que como cañas se mecen al compás de un bambuco colombiano, nos cuentan la alegría que el trovador le muestra al improvisar estas tandas, con las cuales disfrutamos de las ocurrencias del repentista. Por sus diferentes interpretaciones es la trova más difícil de interpretar, se puede cantar con los dos primeros versos octosílabos, y los siguientes de cuatro o cinco o diez silabas, por eso la respiración debe ser bien controlada.

“Viva mi lindo

Valle del Cauca,

Que se abrió paso

Entre la montaña,

Para llenarnos de fiesta el alma,

Con el sabor dulce de la caña”

En el país paisa también encontramos grandes trovadores, siendo una trova campesina, más parrandera que el resto, la cuál con su timbre marcado, y acompañado por el tiple y la guitarra, nos traen los recuerdos de los abuelos arrieros que se encendían a trova limpia para hacerse respetar o para ganar un duelo a punta de trova.

“Los ancestros montañeros

y paisas de pura cepa,

legaron al viejo Caldas

un corazón y una arepa”

Finalmente llegamos a la trova antioqueña, la trova más linda, más sonora, más poética, más humorística, es decir la mejor de todas, con la cuál hemos deslumbrado en diferentes países del mundo e incluso donde se han celebrado grandes festivales como los que hemos de realizar aquí en la capital de nuestro país a partir del año próximo.

La trova tradicional paisa es una mezcolanza del pasillo criollo y del bambuco, que improvisando verso a verso nos muestran diferentes estilos.

“Al paisa nunca le faltan:

machete, carriel y ruana,

ni mula, mujer, ni tiple,

ni misa por la mañana”

La trova dobletiada es probablemente la que más le gusta a la gente y la más comercial, es una seguidilla de dos estrofas de versos octosílabos, entonada con ritmos bailables y de la cual se hacen varios festivales, una de las más representativas y de las más alegres de todos los ritmos de la trova.

“No otra tierra más bella

que mi Colombia preciosa,

gloria esmeralda del mundo

y de los Andes la rosa,

abrazando sus dos mares

y selvas puras y tiernas

levanta su frente airosa

hasta sus nieves eternas”

Otra forma que practican los troveros, es el ratoneo, en esta forma, el primer trovador entona dos versos y el segundo trovador le contesta teniendo en cuenta los dos primeros versos para que rimen y tengan el sentido propuesto por el primer trovador.

“Trovador 1:

“Dígame Carrasquilla

si hay que traerle una orquesta”

Trovador 2:

“Para que pueda darnos

ratoniando su respuesta””

Existen varios estilos de trova, existe la trova festivalera, la cuál se práctica en los festivales más importantes como el rey de reyes, donde los duelos personales se dan con frecuencia, son entretenidos e intentan siempre demostrar los defectos del otro trovador o incluso exaltarse así mismo.

“Como esto es un festival

yo voy a imponer mi ley

y para que sepa Julián

esta tarde yo seré rey”

La trova informal también se aplica, es la trova en la cuál los trovadores pueden relajarse y trovar a su gusto, en el ritmo y con la rima que quieran, así es como nacen muchos trovadores aprendiendo solos intentando improvisar a gusto propio.

“Yo estoy con mis amigos

que a ver mi trova han llegado

y es mejor porque uno trova

contento y descomplicado

uno habla de lo que quiere

pues no se siente obligado”

La trova poética también es importante pero es la más difícil y en la cuál al trovador le queda más fácil embarrarla ya que por utilizar expresiones bonitas, salen con ideas sin sentido, que pueden hacer que el trovador en contienda se lo recrimine e incluso se lo ponga en contra suyo para así ganarle una tanda.

“Los ojos de esta muchacha

la hacen ser más encantada

que bueno tenerla un día

en una tarde en la alborada”

Pero también encontramos el caso del trovador criticón, que por querer hacer quedar mal al otro, termina contestándole con otro verso pero más vengativo que con sentido.

Finalmente la trova humorística, la trova que más divierte a la gente y con la cuál se hace reír a las personas en estas difíciles épocas de crisis que estamos viviendo, pero igualmente difícil. Probablemente uno de sus mejores expositores es El Grupo Salpicón, quien nos divierte a todos con sus trovas cada tarde en el programa radial La Luciernaga de Caracol.

“Miren pues a esa gorda

parece un carro barato

tiene la maleta abierta

y ya le ví todo el gato”

Es importante que cada uno de nosotros reconozcamos la trova en cada uno de sus estilos, pero sobre todo la nuestra, nuestra trova antioqueña que al pasar de los años nos han deleitado. Una tradición montañera que no podemos dejar perder debido a que nosotros los paisas somos quienes mejor hemos hecho resaltar nuestras tradiciones, mostrándole a toda Colombia cuan grande hemos sido y seguiremos siendo en este gran país como lo es Colombia. Por eso es que es importante que traigamos una muestra de lo que sería un festival a la capital, donde no sólo paisanos sino representantes de todas las idiosincrasias colombianas podrán apreciar lo que es una buena trova antioqueña, y lo que vale un buen antioqueño, amante de sus tradiciones y de su ancestro por lo cuál no debemos dejar que se pierda, y ojalá con el apoyo de todos ustedes podamos hacer realidad un proyecto prometedor que solo pretende que el folclore colombiano y más específicamente el folclore montañero perdure y sea algo de lo cual debemos estar orgullosos todos los aquí presentes ya que nuestra tradición paisa y nuestra tierra montañera es lo más grande y más valioso que tiene este país y lo que esta sacando este país adelante a través de nuestro gran presidente antioqueño Álvaro Uribe Vélez.

Por: Sergio Ivan Cadavid Herrera

www.trovadores.lopaisa.com




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