TÉCNICA DE LA TROVA PAISA: Cómo se construye la trova


TÉCNICA DE LA TROVA

El Metro
Acento Final
El Ritmo
Licencias Poéticas
La Sinalefa
El Hiato
La Diéresis
La Sinéresis
Estilo
Tropos
Enlaces

LA TROVA es una creación literaria, oral e improvisada, mediante una estructura de cuatro versos octosílabos. En la trova paisa debe haber rima consonante entre los versos segundo y cuarto. Rima consonante: Se llama rima a la igualdad o semejanza de sonidos al final de dos o más versos. La rima empieza a contar desde la última vocal acentuada del verso, sea acento ortográfico, es decir, señalado con una vírgula, o prosódico.

Si a partir de la última vocal acentuada todas las letras, vocales y consonantes, son iguales, la rima se llama consonante o perfecta.

Ejemplo: poEMA, crEMA, problEMA; papÁ, vA, BogotÁ.

Una idea en cuatro versos

soluciona el problEMA

de improvisar en segundos

el más humilde poEMA. Lloro por la novia mía

que mañana se me vA

con los nietos de mi madre

a vivir a BogotÁ.

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EL METRO

Se llama metro a la medida de los versos y estos se clasifican por el número de sílabas.

Las sílabas métricas no siempre corresponden a las sílabas gramaticales.Un ejemplo en el que ambas sílabas corresponden. Dice Francisco Luis Bernárdez:

Cristobita, pobre

muñeco de trapo

del populachero

guiñol de mi barrio.

Cada uno de estos versos consta de seis sílabas tanto gramaticales como métricas.

Cris/to/bi/ta/po/bre = 6 sílabas

mu/ñe/co/de/tra/po = 6 sílabas

Para medir “métricamente” un verso debemos tener en cuenta el acento final y las licencias poéticas.

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ACENTO FINAL

Con respecto al acento final, que recae siempre en la penúltima sílaba,debemos tener en cuenta la división de las palabras según su acentuación en agudas, graves y esdrújulas.

a) Si un verso termina en palabra aguda, se debe agregar una sílaba a su medida ya que, para nuestro oído, el acento parece alargar al sílaba, duplicándola.

Hojas del árbol caídas

juguetes del viento son.

Las ilusiones perdidas

son hojas ¡ay! desprendidas

del árbol del corazón.

En el primer verso, lo mismo que en el tercero y el cuarto, las sílabas gramaticales y las métricas coinciden, por ser caídas palabra grave.

Ho/jas/del/ár/bol/ca/í/das = 8 sílabas gramaticales

= 8 sílabas métricas

Las/i/lu/sio/nes/per/di/das = 8 sílabas gramaticales

= 8 sílabas métricas

son/ho/jas/¡ay!/des/pren/di/das = 8 sílabas gramaticales

= 8 sílabas métricas

Pero en el segundo y en el quinto pareciera faltar una sílaba:

ju/gue/tes/del/vien/to/son = 7 sílabas gramaticales

= 8 sílabas métricas

del/ár/bol/del/co/ra/zón = 7 sílabas gramaticales

= 8 sílabas métricas

A pesar de ser monosílabo, se considera sonpalabra aguda, lo mismo que corazón.Los monosílabos que se hallan al final de versos se consideran palabra aguda, a pesar de constar sólo de una sílaba.

Como el verso resulta agudo por caer el acento en la última sílaba se deber agrergar una a la cuenta y así resultan las 8 necesarias.

b) Si un verso termina en palabra esdrújula, debemos restar una sílaba a la cuenta, ya que, para nuestro oído,las dos sílabas finales parecen reducirse a una.

Analicemos esta cuarteta de Jorge Guillén, en la que marcaremos con s.g. las sílabas gramaticales y con s.m. las sílabas métricas:

s.g. = sílaba gramatical

s.m. = sílaba métrica

El soto. La fronda. Límpidos. s.g.= 9 s.m.= 8

Son esos huecos aéreos s.g.= 9 s.m.= 8

quienes mejor me serenan s.g.= 8 s.m.= 8

cuando con ellos acierto s.g.= 8 s.m.= 8

c)Si el verso termina en palabra grave no se produce ninguna variación métrica.

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EL RITMO

El ritmo de los versos está marcado por la acentuación, es decir, por la intensificación del sonido en puntos determinados del renglon poético. Esto imprime al verso cierta cadencia grata al oído que constituye el ritmo.

El acento ritmico, es decir el que marca la sílaba del verso que se pronuncia con mayor acentuación, es independiente de los acentos gramaticales que marcan a otras palabras.

Para hacerla notar, marcaremos la sílaba que lleva el acento rítmico con negrita.

Veamos este ejemplo:

Sobre la arena grabó mi nombre

y leve viento lo arrebató

quedó la arena serena y fría

de negra noche bajo el crespón.

Se notará que no se toma en cuenta el acento prosódico o sin tilde de las palabras sobre, leve, serena, negra y bajo, ni el acento ortográfico o con tilde de grabó.

LAS LICENCIAS POÉTICAS

Para poder hacer un análisis métrico completo, debemos referirnos a las llamadas licencias poéticas, que son la sinalefa, el hiato, la diéresis y la sinéresis.La sinalefa y su contraria, el hiato, se producen entre dos palabras; la diéresis y su contraria, la sinéresis, dentro de una palabra.

La Sinalefa

Es la unión que se produce entre las últimas vocales de una palabra y las iniciales de la palabra siguiente tanto para el oído como para la pronunciación.Eso hace que cuando tal unión aparece en los versos, por cada sinalefa se suprima una sílaba.

Veamos ejemplos en los versos de Pablo Neruda:

Puedo escribir los versos más tristes esta noche. 15 s.g. 14 s.m.

Escribir,por ejemplo:”La noche está estrellada 16 s.g. 14 s.m.

y tiritan, azules, los astros, a lo lejos”. 14 s.g. 14 s.m.

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El Hiato

El hiato es la licencia contraria a la sinalefa, es decir que, en lugar de servir para suprimir una sílaba del verso, sirve para añadir una sílaba. El hiato consiste el la pronunciación separada de dos vocales, la conclusión de una palabra y la inicial de la siguiente, evitando la sinalefa.

Veamos un ejemplo de hiato en los siguientes versos de Antonio Machado:

Es el hospicio, el viejo/hospicio provinciano, 15 s.g. 14 s.m.

el caserón ruinoso de ennegrecidas tejas 15 s.g. 14 s.m.

en donde los vencejos anidan en verano 14 s.g. 14 s.m.

y graznan en la noches de ienvierno las cornejas 15 s.g. 14 s.m.

Analizando el primer verso, vemos que la sinalefa producida entre viejo y hospicio quitaría una sílaba del verso y si entre hospicio y el que hallamos anteriormente se produjera también otra sinalefa, no llegaríamos a las 14 sílabas necesarias para concordar con los tres versos restantes.Por eso se hace voluntariamente una pausa o hiato, señalado con la línea inclinada, que añade una sílaba.

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La Diéresis

La diéresis consiste en destruir un diptongo para añadir al verso alguna sílaba necesaria para su medida.

Recordemos que diptongo es la unión de dos vocales formando una sola sílaba que se forma con una vocal fuerte (a e o)y una débil

(i u)o dos débiles (i u):los diptongos en gramática, no pueden destruirse o dividirse. Pero cuando el acento ortográfico recae en una vocal débil de las que forman el conjunto, no hay diptongo: río, reí, mía.Los diptongos castellanos son 14: ai, au, ei, eu, ia, ie, io, iu, oi, ou, ua, ue, ui, ui, uo.

He aquí un caso de utilización de la diéresis en una poesía de fray Luis de León:

Qué descansa la vida 7 s.g. 7 s.m.

la del que huye el mundanal rüido 11 s.g. 11 s.m.

y sigue la escondida 9 s.g. 8 s.m.

senda por donde han ido 9 s.g. 8 s.m.

los pocos sabios que en el mundo han sido 13 s.g. 11 s.m.

En esta musical combinación de versos de 11 y 7 sílabas se ha utilizado muy sabiamente la diéresis para que el verso produzca una sensación de languidez.Si el poeta hubiera escrito: la del que huye del mundanal ruido,no hubiera necesitado utilizar la diéresis en ruido y las sílabas gramaticales hubieran coincidido con la métricas.Pero prueben a leer la estrofa con las dos modalidades y verán como el efecto poético en consonancia con el sentido del texto está sabiamente logrado con el alargamiento producido en la diéresis.

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La Sinéresis

La sinéresis consiste en unir dos vocales fuertes, que no forman diptongo, en una sola sílaba.Es decir, en formar un falso diptongo, lo que disminuye una sílaba del verso.

Veámoslo en esta poesía de Antonio Machado:

Las ascuas de un crepúsculo morado 12 s.g. 11 s.m.

detrás del negro cipresal humean… 11 s.g. 11 s.m.

En la gloria en sombra está la fuente 13 s.g. 11 s.m.

con su alado y desnudo Amoar de piedra, 14 s.g. 11 s.m.

que sueña mundo. En la marmórea taza 13 s.g. 11 s.m.

reposa el agua muerta 8 s.g. 11 s.m.

Marmórea consta de 4 sílabas: mar-mó-re-a pero la sinéresis o falso diptongo ea las reduce a 3: mar-mó-rea.

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Estilo:Modo,manera o forma de hacer las cosas.

No es trovador el que canta improvisando; ni siquiera el que improvisa correctamente.Es trovador el que realiza la belleza por medio del canto, y para ello necesita tener su propio modo de ver el mundo, es decir, su estilo.

Clasificación del estilo:

1) Estilo amplio:Es el que realiza períodos amplios y largos en la expresión de la idea.Es lento, solemne.

2) Estilo cortado:Se caracteriza por la frecuencia de verbos que dan un ritmo acelerado a la expresión, a veces signo de nerviosidad y de apresuramiento.

3) Estilo directo:En este estilo el autor desaparece del texto, solo se ve lo que se quiere decir o fijar en la imaginación del oyente. Nos da la impresión de algo que está sucediendo ante nuestra vida.

4) Estilo florido:Se recarga de adjetivos que son las flores de la literatura y también de figuras literarias.

5) Estilo humorístico:En él se mezcla lo jocoso y lo cómico con lo patético.Lo humorístico hace sonreir dolorosamente, en cambio lo jocoso inspira una risa franca y desinteresada, no mezcla para nada el sentimiento como lo hace el humorístico.

6) Estilo indirecto:Informa, en nombre propio,lo dicho por otros.

7) Estilo lírico:Es muy subjetivo.Ahonda en lo más profundo de cada ser y expresa los estados del alma del trovador.La mayoría de las veces utiliza las figuras o imágenes literarias.

Estilo patético:Es el estilo que conmueve.Se dirige a los sentimientos.

9) Estilo pintoresco:Estilo que impresiona la imaginación;utiliza también la imágenes literarias.Hay que mostrar con palabras lo que se quiere decir, y para conseguir esta viveza descriptiva se utiliza lo que se ha llamado el ‘detalle descriptivo’.

Cualidades del buen estilo:

1. Claridad: lo que se expresa debe estar al alcance de una persona de cultura media.Claridad es pensamiento diáfano, conceptos bien estructurados, exposición limpia.Un estilo es claro cuando el pensamiento del trovador penetra sin esfuerzo en la mente del oyente.

2. Concisión: consiste en emplear las palabras que sean absolutamente precisas para expresar lo que queremos.

3. Sencillez: quiere decir, huir de lo enrevesado, de lo artificioso, de lo complicado.

4. Naturalidad: Evitar lo conceptuoso.Explicar,expresar, decir “naturalmente lo natural”.El trovador sencillo se expresa con naturalidad; es decir, las palabras y las frases son las “propias”, las adecuadas, las que el tema exige; por lo tanto, huye del rebuscamiento.

5. Unidad: la de la trova -y toda la tanda- consiste en que sus partes estén tan estrechamente ligadas entre sí, que todas se refieran al pensamiento dominante.

6. Variedad: en la palabras, las rimas, las frases; cuando ellas se enlazan felizmente, emerge la armonía que es el elemento de belleza.Pero,esas palabras y esas frases deben estar iluminadas por lo que hay que decir.

7. La originalidad del estilo radica, de modo casi exclusivo, en la sinceridad. “Todos somos originales cuando somos nosotros mismos”. Huir de las expresiones banales, de las frases hechas, de los tópicos consagrados por el uso es el mejor camino para consequir un estilo original.

Lo encontré en Internet
aquí dejo la pagina es muy bueno
gracias.

http://trovadores.lopaisa.com/




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